Source code for

from copy import deepcopy
from itertools import product
from typing import Dict, Tuple
from types import SimpleNamespace

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.preprocessing import OneHotEncoder

from lightwood.api.dtype import dtype
from lightwood.api.types import PredictionArguments
from lightwood.helpers.ts import add_tn_conf_bounds

from import EncodedDs
from lightwood.analysis.base import BaseAnalysisBlock
from import Normalizer
from import IcpRegressor, IcpClassifier
from import CachedRegressorAdapter, CachedClassifierAdapter
from import BoostedAbsErrorErrFunc, RegressorNc, ClassifierNc, MarginErrFunc
from import clean_df, set_conf_range, get_numeric_conf_range, \
    get_categorical_conf, get_anomalies

[docs]class ICP(BaseAnalysisBlock): """ Confidence estimation block, uses inductive conformal predictors (ICPs) for model agnosticity """ def __init__(self, fixed_significance: float, positive_domain: bool, confidence_normalizer: bool ): super().__init__() self.fixed_significance = fixed_significance self.positive_domain = positive_domain self.confidence_normalizer = confidence_normalizer self.validation_size = 100 # determines size of nonconformity score arrays (has sizable impact in runtime)
[docs] def analyze(self, info: Dict[str, object], **kwargs) -> Dict[str, object]: ns = SimpleNamespace(**kwargs) data_type = ns.dtype_dict[] output = {'icp': {'__mdb_active': False}} fit_params = {'horizon': ns.tss.horizon or 0, 'columns_to_ignore': []} fit_params['columns_to_ignore'].extend([f'timestep_{i}' for i in range(1, fit_params['horizon'])]) if ns.is_classification: if ns.predictor.supports_proba: all_cat_cols = [col for col in ns.normal_predictions.columns if '__mdb_proba' in col and '__mdb_unknown_cat' not in col] all_classes = np.array([col.replace('__mdb_proba_', '') for col in all_cat_cols]) else: class_keys = sorted(ns.encoded_val_data.encoders[].rev_map.keys()) all_classes = np.array([ns.encoded_val_data.encoders[].rev_map[idx] for idx in class_keys]) if data_type != dtype.tags: enc = OneHotEncoder(sparse=False, handle_unknown='ignore'), 1)) output['label_encoders'] = enc # needed to repr cat labels inside nonconformist else: output['label_encoders'] = None adapter = CachedClassifierAdapter nc_function = MarginErrFunc() nc_class = ClassifierNc icp_class = IcpClassifier else: adapter = CachedRegressorAdapter nc_function = BoostedAbsErrorErrFunc() nc_class = RegressorNc icp_class = IcpRegressor result_df = pd.DataFrame() if ns.is_numerical or (ns.is_classification and data_type != dtype.tags): model = adapter(ns.predictor) norm_params = {'target':, 'dtype_dict': ns.dtype_dict, 'predictor': ns.predictor, 'encoders': ns.encoded_val_data.encoders, 'is_multi_ts': ns.is_multi_ts, 'stop_after': 1e2} if self.confidence_normalizer: normalizer = Normalizer(fit_params=norm_params) normalizer.prediction_cache = normalizer(ns.encoded_val_data, args=PredictionArguments()) else: normalizer = None # instance the ICP nc = nc_class(model, nc_function, normalizer=normalizer) icp = icp_class(nc, cal_size=self.validation_size) output['icp']['__default'] = icp # setup prediction cache to avoid additional .predict() calls if ns.is_classification: if ns.predictor.supports_proba: icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = ns.normal_predictions[all_cat_cols].values else: if ns.is_multi_ts: icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = np.array( [p[0] for p in ns.normal_predictions['prediction']]) preds = icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache else: preds = ns.normal_predictions['prediction'] predicted_classes = pd.get_dummies(preds).values # inflate to one-hot enc icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = predicted_classes elif ns.is_multi_ts: # we fit ICPs for time series confidence bounds only at t+1 forecast icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = np.array([p[0] for p in ns.normal_predictions['prediction']]) else: icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = np.array(ns.normal_predictions['prediction']) if not ns.is_classification: output['df_target_stddev'] = {'__default': ns.stats_info.df_target_stddev} # fit additional ICPs in time series tasks with grouped columns if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.group_by: # create an ICP for each possible group group_info =[ns.tss.group_by].to_dict('list') all_group_combinations = list(product(*[set(x) for x in group_info.values()])) output['icp']['__mdb_groups'] = all_group_combinations output['icp']['__mdb_group_keys'] = [x for x in group_info.keys()] for combination in all_group_combinations: output['icp'][tuple(combination)] = deepcopy(icp) # calibrate ICP icp_df = deepcopy( icp_df, y = clean_df(icp_df,, ns.is_classification, output.get('label_encoders', None)) output['icp']['__default'].index = icp_df.columns output['icp']['__default'].calibrate(icp_df.values, y) # get confidence estimation for validation dataset conf, ranges = set_conf_range( icp_df, icp, ns.dtype_dict[], output, positive_domain=self.positive_domain, significance=self.fixed_significance) if not ns.is_classification: result_df = pd.DataFrame(, columns=['confidence', 'lower', 'upper'], dtype=float) result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'lower'] = ranges[:, 0] result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'upper'] = ranges[:, 1] else: result_df = pd.DataFrame(, columns=['confidence'], dtype=float) result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'confidence'] = conf # calibrate additional grouped ICPs if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.group_by: icps = output['icp'] group_keys = icps['__mdb_group_keys'] # add all predictions to DF icps_df = deepcopy( if ns.is_multi_ts: icps_df[f'__predicted_{}'] = [p[0] for p in ns.normal_predictions['prediction']] else: icps_df[f'__predicted_{}'] = ns.normal_predictions['prediction'] for group in icps['__mdb_groups']: icp_df = icps_df # filter irrelevant rows for each group combination icp_df['__mdb_norm_index'] = np.arange(len(icp_df)) for key, val in zip(group_keys, group): icp_df = icp_df[icp_df[key] == val] if icps[tuple(group)].nc_function.normalizer is not None: group_normalizer = icps[tuple(group)].nc_function.normalizer norm_input_df = ns.encoded_val_data.data_frame.iloc[icp_df.pop('__mdb_norm_index')] norm_input = EncodedDs(ns.encoded_val_data.encoders, norm_input_df, norm_cache = group_normalizer(norm_input, args=PredictionArguments()) icp_df[f'__norm_{}'] = norm_cache # save relevant predictions in the caches, then calibrate the ICP pred_cache = icp_df.pop(f'__predicted_{}').values icps[tuple(group)].nc_function.model.prediction_cache = pred_cache icp_df, y = clean_df(icp_df,, ns.is_classification, output.get('label_encoders', None)) if icps[tuple(group)].nc_function.normalizer is not None: icps[tuple(group)].nc_function.normalizer.prediction_cache = icp_df.pop( f'__norm_{}').values icps[tuple(group)].index = icp_df.columns # important at inference time icps[tuple(group)].calibrate(icp_df.values, y) # save training std() for bounds width selection if not ns.is_classification: icp_train_df = for key, val in zip(group_keys, group): icp_train_df = icp_train_df[icp_train_df[key] == val] y_train = icp_train_df[].values output['df_target_stddev'][tuple(group)] = y_train.std() # get bounds for relevant rows in validation dataset conf, group_ranges = set_conf_range( icp_df, icps[tuple(group)], ns.dtype_dict[], output, group=tuple(group), positive_domain=self.positive_domain, significance=self.fixed_significance) # save group bounds if not ns.is_classification: result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'lower'] = group_ranges[:, 0] result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'upper'] = group_ranges[:, 1] result_df.loc[icp_df.index, 'confidence'] = conf # consolidate all groups here output['icp']['__mdb_active'] = True output['result_df'] = result_df info = {**info, **output} return info
[docs] def explain(self, row_insights: pd.DataFrame, global_insights: Dict[str, object], **kwargs) -> Tuple[pd.DataFrame, Dict[str, object]]: ns = SimpleNamespace(**kwargs) if ns.analysis['icp']['__mdb_active']: icp_X = deepcopy( # replace observed data w/predictions preds = ns.predictions['prediction'] if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.horizon > 1: preds = [p[0] for p in preds] for col in [f'timestep_{i}' for i in range(1, ns.tss.horizon)]: if col in icp_X.columns: icp_X.pop(col) # erase ignorable columns icp_X[ns.target_name] = preds is_categorical = ns.target_dtype in (dtype.binary, dtype.categorical, dtype.cat_array, dtype.cat_tsarray) is_numerical = ns.target_dtype in (dtype.integer, dtype.float, dtype.quantity, dtype.num_array, dtype.num_tsarray) is_anomaly_task = is_numerical and ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.anomaly_detection if (is_numerical or is_categorical) and ns.analysis['icp'].get('__mdb_active', False): base_icp = ns.analysis['icp']['__default'] # reorder DF index index = base_icp.index.values index = np.append(index, ns.target_name) if ns.target_name not in index else index icp_X = icp_X.reindex(columns=index) # important, else bounds can be invalid # only one normalizer, even if it's a grouped time series task normalizer = base_icp.nc_function.normalizer if normalizer: normalizer.prediction_cache = normalizer(ns.encoded_data, args=PredictionArguments) icp_X['__mdb_selfaware_scores'] = normalizer.prediction_cache # get ICP predictions result_cols = ['lower', 'upper', 'significance'] if is_numerical else ['significance'] result = pd.DataFrame(index=icp_X.index, columns=result_cols) # base ICP X = deepcopy(icp_X) # Calling `values` multiple times increased runtime of this function; referenced var is faster icp_values = X.values # get all possible ranges if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.horizon > 1 and is_numerical: # bounds in time series are only given for the first forecast base_icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = preds all_confs = base_icp.predict(icp_values) elif is_numerical: base_icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = preds all_confs = base_icp.predict(icp_values) # categorical else: predicted_proba = True if any(['__mdb_proba' in col for col in ns.predictions.columns]) else False if predicted_proba: all_cat_cols = [col for col in ns.predictions.columns if '__mdb_proba' in col and '__mdb_unknown_cat' not in col] class_dists = ns.predictions[all_cat_cols].values for icol, cat_col in enumerate(all_cat_cols): row_insights.loc[X.index, cat_col] = class_dists[:, icol] else: class_dists = pd.get_dummies(preds).values base_icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = class_dists all_ranges = np.array([base_icp.predict(icp_values)]) all_confs = np.swapaxes(np.swapaxes(all_ranges, 0, 2), 0, 1) # convert (B, 2, 99) into (B, 2) given width or error rate constraints if is_numerical: significances, confs = get_numeric_conf_range(all_confs, df_target_stddev=ns.analysis['df_target_stddev'], positive_domain=self.positive_domain, fixed_conf=ns.pred_args.fixed_confidence) result.loc[X.index, 'lower'] = confs[:, 0] result.loc[X.index, 'upper'] = confs[:, 1] else: significances = get_categorical_conf(all_confs.squeeze()) result.loc[X.index, 'significance'] = significances # grouped time series, we replace bounds in rows that have a trained ICP if ns.analysis['icp'].get('__mdb_groups', False): icps = ns.analysis['icp'] group_keys = icps['__mdb_group_keys'] for group in icps['__mdb_groups']: icp = icps[tuple(group)] # check ICP has calibration scores if icp.cal_scores[0].shape[0] > 0: # filter rows by group X = deepcopy(icp_X) for key, val in zip(group_keys, group): X = X[X[key] == val] if X.size > 0: # set ICP caches icp.nc_function.model.prediction_cache = X.pop(ns.target_name).values if icp.nc_function.normalizer: icp.nc_function.normalizer.prediction_cache = X.pop('__mdb_selfaware_scores').values # predict and get confidence level given width or error rate constraints if is_numerical: all_confs = icp.predict(X.values) fixed_conf = ns.pred_args.fixed_confidence significances, confs = get_numeric_conf_range( all_confs, df_target_stddev=ns.analysis['df_target_stddev'], positive_domain=self.positive_domain, group=tuple(group), fixed_conf=fixed_conf ) # only replace where grouped ICP is more informative (i.e. tighter) if fixed_conf is None: default_widths = result.loc[X.index, 'upper'] - result.loc[X.index, 'lower'] grouped_widths = np.subtract(confs[:, 1], confs[:, 0]) insert_index = (default_widths > grouped_widths)[lambda x: x.isin([True])].index conf_index = (default_widths.reset_index(drop=True) > grouped_widths)[lambda x: x.isin([True])].index result.loc[insert_index, 'lower'] = confs[conf_index, 0] result.loc[insert_index, 'upper'] = confs[conf_index, 1] result.loc[insert_index, 'significance'] = significances[conf_index] else: all_ranges = np.array([icp.predict(X.values)]) all_confs = np.swapaxes(np.swapaxes(all_ranges, 0, 2), 0, 1) significances = get_categorical_conf(all_confs) result.loc[X.index, 'significance'] = significances row_insights['confidence'] = result['significance'].astype(float).tolist() if is_numerical: row_insights['lower'] = result['lower'].astype(float) row_insights['upper'] = result['upper'].astype(float) # anomaly detection if is_anomaly_task: anomalies = get_anomalies(row_insights,[ns.target_name], cooldown=ns.pred_args.anomaly_cooldown) row_insights['anomaly'] = anomalies if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.horizon > 1 and is_numerical: row_insights = add_tn_conf_bounds(row_insights, ns.tss) # clip bounds if necessary if is_numerical: lower_limit = 0.0 if ns.positive_domain else -pow(2, 62) upper_limit = pow(2, 62) if not (ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.horizon > 1): row_insights['upper'] = row_insights['upper'].clip(lower_limit, upper_limit) row_insights['lower'] = row_insights['lower'].clip(lower_limit, upper_limit) else: row_insights['upper'] = [np.array(row).clip(lower_limit, upper_limit).tolist() for row in row_insights['upper']] row_insights['lower'] = [np.array(row).clip(lower_limit, upper_limit).tolist() for row in row_insights['lower']] # Make sure the target and real values are of an appropriate type if ns.tss.is_timeseries and ns.tss.horizon > 1: # Array output that are not of type <array> originally are odd and I'm not sure how to handle them # Or if they even need handling yet pass elif ns.target_dtype in (dtype.integer): row_insights['prediction'] = row_insights['prediction'].astype(int) row_insights['upper'] = row_insights['upper'].astype(int) row_insights['lower'] = row_insights['lower'].astype(int) elif ns.target_dtype in (dtype.float, dtype.quantity): row_insights['prediction'] = row_insights['prediction'].astype(float) row_insights['upper'] = row_insights['upper'].astype(float) row_insights['lower'] = row_insights['lower'].astype(float) elif ns.target_dtype in (dtype.short_text, dtype.rich_text, dtype.binary, dtype.categorical): row_insights['prediction'] = row_insights['prediction'].astype(str) return row_insights, global_insights