Source code for

from typing import Dict
from functools import partial
import multiprocessing as mp

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from lightwood.helpers.parallelism import get_nr_procs
from lightwood.helpers.ts import get_ts_groups, get_delta, get_group_matches

from lightwood.api import dtype
from lightwood.api.types import TimeseriesSettings
from lightwood.helpers.log import log

[docs]def transform_timeseries( data: pd.DataFrame, dtype_dict: Dict[str, str], ts_analysis: dict, timeseries_settings: TimeseriesSettings, target: str, mode: str) -> pd.DataFrame: """ Block that transforms the dataframe of a time series task to a convenient format for use in posterior phases like model training. The main transformations performed by this block are: - Type casting (e.g. to numerical for `order_by` column). - Windowing functions for historical context based on `TimeseriesSettings.window` parameter. - Explicitly add target columns according to the `TimeseriesSettings.horizon` parameter. - Flag all rows that are "predictable" based on all `TimeseriesSettings`. - Plus, handle all logic for the streaming use case (where forecasts are only emitted for the last observed data point). :param data: Dataframe with data to transform. :param dtype_dict: Dictionary with the types of each column. :param ts_analysis: dictionary with various insights into each series passed as training input. :param timeseries_settings: A `TimeseriesSettings` object. :param target: The name of the target column to forecast. :param mode: Either "train" or "predict", depending on what phase is calling this procedure. :return: A dataframe with all the transformations applied. """ # noqa tss = timeseries_settings gb_arr = tss.group_by if tss.group_by is not None else [] oby = tss.order_by window = tss.window if tss.use_previous_target and target not in data.columns: raise Exception(f"Cannot transform. Missing historical values for target column {target} (`use_previous_target` is set to True).") # noqa for hcol in tss.historical_columns: if hcol not in data.columns or data[hcol].isna().any(): raise Exception(f"Cannot transform. Missing values in historical column {hcol}.") # infer frequency with get_delta oby_col = tss.order_by groups = get_ts_groups(data, tss) # initial stable sort and per-partition deduplication data = data.sort_values(by=oby_col, kind='mergesort') data = data.drop_duplicates(subset=[oby_col, *gb_arr], keep='first') if not ts_analysis: _, periods, freqs = get_delta(data, dtype_dict, groups, target, tss) else: periods = ts_analysis['periods'] freqs = ts_analysis['sample_freqs'] # pass seconds to timestamps according to each group's inferred freq, and force this freq on index subsets = [] for group in groups: if (tss.group_by and group != '__default') or not tss.group_by: idxs, subset = get_group_matches(data, group, tss.group_by) if subset.shape[0] > 0: if periods.get(group, periods['__default']) == 0 and subset.shape[0] > 1: raise Exception( f"Partition is not valid, faulty group {group}. Please make sure you group by a set of columns that ensures unique measurements for each grouping through time.") # noqa index = pd.to_datetime(subset[oby_col], unit='s') subset.index = pd.date_range(start=index.iloc[0], freq=freqs.get(group, freqs['__default']), periods=len(subset)) subset['__mdb_inferred_freq'] = subset.index.freq # sets constant column because pd.concat forgets freq (see: # noqa subsets.append(subset) original_df = pd.concat(subsets).sort_values(by='__mdb_original_index') if '__mdb_forecast_offset' in original_df.columns: """ This special column can be either None or an integer. If this column is passed, then the TS transformation will react to the values within: * If all rows = `None`, proceed as usual. This ends up generating one HORIZON-length forecast for each row in the DF. * If all rows have the same value `N <= 0`, then cutoff the dataframe latest `-N` rows after TS shaping and prime the DF (with `__make_predictions` column) so that a forecast is generated only for the last row (thus more efficient). This enables `WHERE T = LATEST - K` with `0 <= K < WINDOW` syntax upstream in MindsDB. * If all rows have the same value `N = 1`, then activate streaming inference mode where a single forecast will be emitted for the timestamp inferred by the `_ts_infer_next_row` method. This enables the (already supported) `WHERE T > LATEST` syntax. """ # noqa index = original_df[~original_df['__mdb_forecast_offset'].isin([None])] # trigger if col is constant & != None offset_available = index.shape[0] == len(original_df) and \ original_df['__mdb_forecast_offset'].unique().tolist() != [None] if offset_available: offset = min(int(original_df['__mdb_forecast_offset'].unique()[0]), 1) else: offset = 0 infer_mode = offset_available and offset == 1 else: offset_available = False offset = 0 infer_mode = False original_index_list = [] idx = 0 for row in original_df.itertuples(): if _make_pred(row) or infer_mode:[row.Index, '__make_predictions'] = True original_index_list.append(idx) idx += 1 else:[row.Index, '__make_predictions'] = False original_index_list.append(None) original_df['original_index'] = original_index_list secondary_type_dict = {} if dtype_dict[oby] in (, dtype.integer, dtype.float): secondary_type_dict[oby] = dtype_dict[oby] original_df[f'__mdb_original_{oby}'] = original_df[oby] group_lengths = [] if len(gb_arr) > 0: df_arr = [] for _, df in original_df.groupby(gb_arr): df_arr.append(df.sort_values(by=oby)) group_lengths.append(len(df)) else: df_arr = [original_df.sort_values(by=oby)] group_lengths.append(len(original_df)) n_groups = len(df_arr) for i, subdf in enumerate(df_arr): if '__mdb_forecast_offset' in subdf.columns and mode == 'predict': if infer_mode: df_arr[i] = _ts_infer_next_row(subdf, oby) make_preds = [False for _ in range(max(0, len(df_arr[i]) - 1))] + [True] elif offset_available: # truncate to forecast up until some len(df) + offset (which is <= 0) new_index = df_arr[i].index[:len(df_arr[i].index) + offset] make_preds = [False for _ in range(max(0, len(new_index) - 1))] + [True] df_arr[i] = df_arr[i].loc[new_index] else: make_preds = [True for _ in range(len(df_arr[i]))] df_arr[i]['__make_predictions'] = make_preds if len(original_df) > 500: # @TODO: restore possibility to override this with args nr_procs = get_nr_procs(original_df)'Using {nr_procs} processes to reshape.') pool = mp.Pool(processes=nr_procs) # Make type `object` so that dataframe cells can be python lists df_arr =, historical_columns=[oby] + tss.historical_columns), df_arr) df_arr = partial( _ts_add_previous_rows, order_cols=[oby] + tss.historical_columns, window=window), df_arr) df_arr =, target=target, horizon=tss.horizon, data_dtype=tss.target_type, mode=mode), df_arr) if tss.use_previous_target: df_arr = partial(_ts_add_previous_target, target=target, window=tss.window), df_arr) pool.close() pool.join() else: for i in range(n_groups): df_arr[i] = _ts_to_obj(df_arr[i], historical_columns=[oby] + tss.historical_columns) df_arr[i] = _ts_add_previous_rows(df_arr[i], order_cols=[oby] + tss.historical_columns, window=window) df_arr[i] = _ts_add_future_target(df_arr[i], target=target, horizon=tss.horizon, data_dtype=tss.target_type, mode=mode) if tss.use_previous_target: df_arr[i] = _ts_add_previous_target(df_arr[i], target=target, window=tss.window) combined_df = pd.concat(df_arr) if '__mdb_forecast_offset' in combined_df.columns: combined_df = pd.DataFrame(combined_df[combined_df['__make_predictions']]) # filters by True only del combined_df['__make_predictions'] if not infer_mode and any([i < tss.window for i in group_lengths]): if tss.allow_incomplete_history: log.warning("Forecasting with incomplete historical context, predictions might be subpar") else: raise Exception(f'Not enough historical context to make a timeseries prediction (`allow_incomplete_history` is set to False). Please provide a number of rows greater or equal to the window size - currently (number_rows, window_size) = ({min(group_lengths)}, {tss.window}). If you can\'t get enough rows, consider lowering your window size. If you want to force timeseries predictions lacking historical context please set the `allow_incomplete_history` timeseries setting to `True`, but this might lead to subpar predictions depending on the mixer.') # noqa df_gb_map = None if n_groups > 1: df_gb_list = list(combined_df.groupby(tss.group_by)) df_gb_map = {} for gb, df in df_gb_list: df_gb_map['_' + '_'.join(str(gb))] = df timeseries_row_mapping = {} idx = 0 if df_gb_map is None: for i in range(len(combined_df)): row = combined_df.iloc[i] if not infer_mode: timeseries_row_mapping[idx] = int( row['original_index']) if row['original_index'] is not None and not np.isnan( row['original_index']) else None else: timeseries_row_mapping[idx] = idx idx += 1 else: for gb in df_gb_map: for i in range(len(df_gb_map[gb])): row = df_gb_map[gb].iloc[i] if not infer_mode: timeseries_row_mapping[idx] = int( row['original_index']) if row['original_index'] is not None and not np.isnan( row['original_index']) else None else: timeseries_row_mapping[idx] = idx idx += 1 del combined_df['original_index'] return combined_df
def _ts_infer_next_row(df: pd.DataFrame, ob: str) -> pd.DataFrame: """ Adds an inferred next row for streaming mode purposes. :param df: dataframe from which next row is inferred. :param ob: `order_by` column. :return: Modified `df` with the inferred row appended to it. """ original_index = df.index.copy() start = original_index.min() new_index = pd.date_range(start=start, periods=len(original_index) + 1, freq=df['__mdb_inferred_freq'].iloc[0]) last_row = df.iloc[[-1]].copy() last_row['__mdb_ts_inferred'] = True if df.shape[0] > 1: butlast_row = df.iloc[[-2]] delta = (last_row[ob].values - butlast_row[ob].values).flatten()[0] else: delta = 1 last_row[ob] += delta new_df = df.append(last_row) new_df.index = pd.DatetimeIndex(new_index) return new_df def _make_pred(row) -> bool: """ Indicates whether a prediction should be made for `row` or not. """ return not hasattr(row, '__mdb_forecast_offset') or row.make_predictions def _ts_to_obj(df: pd.DataFrame, historical_columns: list) -> pd.DataFrame: """ Casts all historical columns in a dataframe to `object` type. :param df: Input dataframe :param historical_columns: Historical columns to type cast :return: Dataframe with `object`-typed historical columns """ for hist_col in historical_columns: df.loc[:, hist_col] = df[hist_col].astype(object) return df def _ts_add_previous_rows(df: pd.DataFrame, order_cols: list, window: int) -> pd.DataFrame: """ Adds previous rows (as determined by `TimeseriesSettings.window`) into the cells of the `order_by` column. :param df: Input dataframe. :param order_cols: `order_by` column and other columns flagged as `historical`. :param window: value of `TimeseriesSettings.window` parameter. :return: Dataframe with all `order_cols` modified so that their values are now arrays of historical context. """ # noqa for order_col in order_cols: new_vals = np.zeros((len(df), window)) for i in range(window, 0, -1): new_vals[:, i - 1] = df[order_col].shift(window - i).values new_vals = np.nan_to_num(new_vals, nan=0.0) for i in range(len(df)):[df.index[i], order_col] = new_vals[i, :] return df def _ts_add_previous_target(df: pd.DataFrame, target: str, window: int) -> pd.DataFrame: """ Adds previous rows (as determined by `TimeseriesSettings.window`) into the cells of the target column. :param df: Input dataframe. :param target: target column name. :param window: value of `TimeseriesSettings.window` parameter. :return: Dataframe with new `__mdb_ts_previous_{target}` column that contains historical target context. """ # noqa if target not in df: return df previous_target_values = list(df[target]) del previous_target_values[-1] previous_target_values = [None] + previous_target_values previous_target_values_arr = [] for i in range(len(previous_target_values)): prev_vals = previous_target_values[max(i - window, 0):i + 1] arr = [None] * (window - len(prev_vals) + 1) arr.extend(prev_vals) previous_target_values_arr.append(arr) df[f'__mdb_ts_previous_{target}'] = previous_target_values_arr return df def _ts_add_future_target(df, target, horizon, data_dtype, mode): """ Adds as many columns to the input dataframe as the forecasting horizon asks for (as determined by `TimeseriesSettings.horizon`). :param df: Input dataframe. :param target: target column name. :param horizon: value of `TimeseriesSettings.horizon` parameter. :param data_dtype: dictionary with types of all input columns :param mode: either "train" or "predict". `Train` will drop rows with incomplet target info. `Predict` has no effect, for now. :return: Dataframe with new `{target}_timestep_{i}'` columns that contains target labels at timestep `i` of a total `TimeseriesSettings.horizon`. """ # noqa if target not in df: return df if data_dtype in (dtype.integer, dtype.float, dtype.num_array, dtype.num_tsarray): df[target] = df[target].astype(float) for timestep_index in range(1, horizon): next_target_value_arr = list(df[target]) for del_index in range(0, min(timestep_index, len(next_target_value_arr))): del next_target_value_arr[0] next_target_value_arr.append(None) col_name = f'{target}_timestep_{timestep_index}' df[col_name] = next_target_value_arr df[col_name] = df[col_name].fillna(value=np.nan) return df